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Journal Articles Medical Image Analysis Year : 2020

Automatic detection of multiple pathologies in fundus photographs using spin-off learning

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In the last decades, large datasets of fundus photographs have been collected in diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening networks. Through deep learning, these datasets were used to train automatic detectors for DR and a few other frequent pathologies, with the goal to automate screening. One challenge limits the adoption of such systems so far: automatic detectors ignore rare conditions that ophthalmologists currently detect, such as papilledema or anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. The reason is that standard deep learning requires too many examples of these conditions. However, this limitation can be addressed with few-shot learning, a machine learning paradigm where a classifier has to generalize to a new category not seen in training, given only a few examples of this category. This paper presents a new few-shot learning framework that extends convolutional neural networks (CNNs), trained for frequent conditions, with an unsupervised probabilistic model for rare condition detection. It is based on the observation that CNNs often perceive photographs containing the same anomalies as similar, even though these CNNs were trained to detect unrelated conditions. This observation was based on the t-SNE visualization tool, which we decided to incorporate in our probabilistic model. Experiments on a dataset of 164,660 screening examinations from the OPHDIAT screening network show that 37 conditions, out of 41, can be detected with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) greater than 0.8 (average AUC: 0.938). In particular, this framework significantly outperforms other frameworks for detecting rare conditions, including multitask learning, transfer learning and Siamese networks, another few-shot learning solution. We expect these richer predictions to trigger the adoption of automated eye pathology screening, which will revolutionize clinical practice in ophthalmology.
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Dates and versions

hal-02453320 , version 1 (21-07-2022)


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Gwenolé Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Pierre-Henri Conze, Pascale Massin, Béatrice Cochener. Automatic detection of multiple pathologies in fundus photographs using spin-off learning. Medical Image Analysis, 2020, 61, ⟨10.1016/⟩. ⟨hal-02453320⟩
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